Project icon: lavishly furnished initial letter with a painting of Ptolemy using an astrolab.


Arabus et Latinus

Welcome to the homepage of the project Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus (PAL). The website has now been implemented with a beta-version of the database and with samples of transcriptions and images.

The database currently includes the following:

  • Works: 120 entries giving cursory descriptions of Latin Ptolemaic works, that is, works by Ptolemy or attributed to him and commentaries thereupon.
  • Manuscripts: over 250 entries for Latin manuscripts containing Ptolemaic works.
  • Glossary: nearly 2000 Greek and Arabic technical terms from selected texts (Almagest I-II, Planetary Hypotheses, Planispherium, Tetrabiblos).    

Two Transcriptions are available:

  • Almagest, Latin translation by Gerard of Cremona
  • Almagestum parvum

HD Images of a rapidly increasing number of Ptolemaic works can be accessed through the menu item Scans.

Implementation will continue over the coming months and it is anticipated that the alpha-version of the database will be available by the end of 2017. Feedback and comments are welcome at


Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Alfons-Goppel-Straße 11
80539 Munich



The Ptolemy team in July 2015
The Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus team in July 2015. From left to right: Marie-Luise Zurhake, Stefan Georges, Claudia Dorl-Klingenschmid, Irina Galynina, Hayim Malkhasy, María José Parra Pérez, Benno van Dalen, Menso Folkerts (Chairman of the Academy Commission for History of Science), Dag Nikolaus Hasse, Bastian Gröppmaier, Bojidar Dimitrov, David Juste, Dominik Knaupp, Stefan Müller, and Henry Zepeda.