Project icon: lavishly furnished initial letter with a painting of Ptolemy using an astrolab.


Arabus et Latinus

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ ς τ υ φ χ ψ ω
The following characters have a special meaning. Put them next to a word without a space between.
" "encloses a sequence of words so that the sequence is searched as a whole.
+The following word must appear.
-The following word must not appear.
~The following word should not appear but may appear.
<The following word should appear but is not as relevant as other words.
>The following word should appear and is more relevant than other words.
( )groups words together so that one of the prefixes above can be applied to the whole group.
*is a wildcard behind a word, representing null, one or several arbitrary characters.

The Project Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus (PAL) is dedicated to the edition and study of the Arabic and Latin versions of Ptolemy’s astronomical and astrological texts and related material. These include works by Ptolemy or attributed to him, commentaries thereupon, and other works that are of immediate relevance to understanding Ptolemy’s heritage in the Middle Ages and the early modern period up to 1700 A.D.


The PAL online database currently offers the following items:

  • Works: a cursory description of Arabic and Latin Ptolemaic works arranged in three categories: A=Authentic Works; B=Pseudepigrapha; C=Commentaries upon A and B
  • Manuscripts: a catalogue of Arabic and Latin Ptolemaic manuscripts
  • Glossary: a Greek-Arabic-Latin-English glossary of astronomical and astrological terms
  • Images: high definition reproductions of Ptolemaic works from a selected manuscript or early printed edition
  • Texts: searchable transcriptions of Ptolemaic works prepared from a selected manuscript or early printed edition


The PAL database was first published in December 2016 and is being implemented almost on a daily basis, but visitors should be aware that it is still very much in progress.


Feedback and comments are welcome at


Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Alfons-Goppel-Straße 11
80539 Munich