Project icon: lavishly furnished initial letter with a painting of Ptolemy using an astrolab.


Arabus et Latinus

_ (the underscore) is the placeholder for exactly one character.
% (the percent sign) is the placeholder for no, one or more than one character.

At the beginning and at the end, these placeholders are superfluous.

The Project Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus (PAL) is dedicated to the edition and study of the Arabic and Latin versions of Ptolemy’s astronomical and astrological texts and related material. These include works by Ptolemy or attributed to him, commentaries thereupon, and other works that are of immediate relevance to understanding Ptolemy’s heritage in the Middle Ages and the early modern period up to 1700 A.D.


The PAL online database currently offers the following items:

  • Works: a cursory description of Arabic and Latin Ptolemaic works arranged in three categories: A=Authentic Works; B=Pseudepigrapha; C=Commentaries upon A and B
  • Manuscripts: a catalogue of Arabic and Latin Ptolemaic manuscripts
  • Glossary: a Greek-Arabic-Latin-English glossary of astronomical and astrological terms
  • Images: high definition reproductions of Ptolemaic works from a selected manuscript or early printed edition
  • Texts: searchable transcriptions of Ptolemaic works prepared from a selected manuscript or early printed edition


The PAL database was first published in December 2016 and is being implemented almost on a daily basis, but visitors should be aware that it is still very much in progress.


Feedback and comments are welcome at


Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Alfons-Goppel-Straße 11
80539 Munich