Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus

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The Project Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus (PAL) is dedicated to the edition and study of the Arabic and Latin versions of Ptolemy’s astronomical and astrological texts and related material. These include works by Ptolemy or attributed to him, commentaries thereupon, and other works that are of immediate relevance to understanding Ptolemy’s heritage in the Middle Ages and the early modern period up to 1700 A.D.


The PAL online database offers the following items:


The PAL database was first published in December 2016 and is being implemented almost on a daily basis, but visitors should be aware that it is still very much a work in progress.


Feedback and comments are welcome at


Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus

Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften

Alfons-Goppel-Straße 11

80539 Munich, Germany