Work A.3

# Ptolemy

Planetary Hypotheses

**Content** Two books. Description of planetary spheres, distances, sizes and motions.

**Origin** Greek (*Ὑποθέσεις τ**ῶ*ν πλανωμένων, ‘Hypotheses of the Planets’). Only the first part of Book I survives in Greek (up to the sphere of Saturn) and it is from this incomplete Greek version that all Latin translations derive. The complete work is extant in Arabic only, although Ptolemy’s speaks of tables at the end of Book II, which have not been found.

**Bibl.** J. L. Heiberg, *Claudii Ptolemaei opera quae exstant omnia*, II: *Opera astronomica minora*, Leipzig, 1907, vi-x and clxvi-clxxiv; W. Hartner, ‘Medieval Views on Cosmic Dimensions and Ptolemy’s *Kitāb al-Manshūrāt*’, in *Mélanges Alexandre Koyré*, Paris, 1964, 254-282 (reprinted in W. Hartner, *Oriens-Occidens. **Ausgewählte Schriften zur Wissenschafts- und Kulturgeschichte. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag W. Hartner*, Hildesheim, 1968, 319-348); B. R. Goldstein, ‘The Arabic Version of Ptolemy’s Planetary Hypotheses’, *Transactions of the American Philosophical Society* N. S. 57 (1967), 3-55; N. M. Swerdlow, *Ptolemy’s Theory of the Distances and Sizes of the Planets: A Study of the Scientific Foundations of Medieval Cosmology*, PhD Dissertation, Yale University, 1968; O. Neugebauer, *A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy*, Berlin-New York, 1975, II, 900-926; F. Sezgin, *Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums*, VI: *Astronomie*, Leiden, 1978, 94-95 (no. II); E. Pérez Sedeño, *Ptolomeo: Las Hipótesis de los Planetas,* Madrid, 1987; R. Morelon, ‘La version arabe du *Livre des hypothèses *de Ptolémée’, *Mélanges de l’Institut Dominicain d’Etudes Orientales *21 (1993), 7-85; L. Taub, *Ptolemy’s Universe. The Natural Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Ptolemy’s Astronomy*, Chicago, 1993, 105-134; A. Murschel, ‘The Structure and Function of Ptolemy’s Physical Hypotheses of Planetary Motion’,* Journal for the History of Astronomy* 26 (1995), 33-61; R. Morelon, ‘Le *Livre des hypothèses* de Claude Ptolémée et la lecture de cet auteur en langue arabe’, in *Perspectives arabes et médiévales sur les traditions scientifique et philosophique grecque. Actes du colloque de la SIHSPAI, Paris, 31 mars – 3 avril 1993*, Paris, 1997, 95-104; A. Cano Ledesma, E. Pérez Sedeño, ‘«Las hipotesis de los planetas» de Claudio Ptolomeo y su recepcion entre los astronomas arabes’, *Revista Brasileira de História da Ciência* 10 (1993), 21-28; J. Evans, ‘The Origins of Ptolemy’s Cosmos’, in *Cosmology Through Time. Ancient and Modern Cosmologies in the Mediterranean Area*, eds S. Colafrancesco, G. Giobbi, Milano, 2003, 123-132; N. W. Swerdlow, ‘Ptolemy’s Theories of the Latitudes of the Planets in the *Almagest*, *Handy Tables*, and *Planetary Hypotheses*’, in *Wrong for the Right Reasons*, eds J. Z. Buchwald, A. Franklin, Dordrecht-Berlin, 2005, 41-71; D. W. Duke, ‘Mean Motions in Ptolemy’s *Planetary Hypotheses*’, *Archive for History of Exact Sciences* 63 (2009), 635-654; O. Pedersen, *A Survey of the Almagest. With Annotation and New Commentary by Alexander Jones*, New York-Dordrecht, 2011 (first edition 1974), 391-397; E. A. Hamm, *Ptolemy’s Planetary Theory: An English Translation of Book One, Part A of the *Planetary Hypotheses* with Introduction and Commentary*, PhD dissertation, University of Toronto, 2011; E. A. Hamm, ‘Modeling the Heavens: *Sphairopoiia* and Ptolemy’s *Planetary Hypotheses*’, *Perspectives on Science *24 (2016), 416-424; J. Feke, *Ptolemy’s Philosophy. **Mathematics as a Way of Life*, Princeton-Oxford, 2018, 187-200 and *passim*.

**Ed.** The Greek original text, containing the first part of Book I only, was first published, together with a facing Latin translation, by John Bainbridge in 1620 (see A.3.3). Bainbridge’s Greek text was the basis for the modern editions by N. Halma, *Hypothèses et époques des planètes de C. Ptolémée, et Hypotyposes de Proclus Diadochus*, Paris, 1820, 42-56 (with a French translation), and by Heiberg, 70-107 (with a German translation and followed pp. 110-145 by a German translation of Book II from the Arabic by L. Nix). The complete text (Arabic), which includes the second part of Book I and Book II, is edited by Goldstein (facsimile, with an English translation of the second part of Book I) and by Morelon (critical edition of Book I, with a French translation). The Greek text has been translated into English by Hamm, *Ptolemy’s Planetary Theory…*, 44-64. The complete text has been translated into Spanish in Pérez Sedeño (from Greek, as far as extant, by J. García Blanco, and from Arabic, for the rest, by A. Cano Ledesma), but see G. J. Toomer’s review of this book in *Isis* 81 (1990), 757-758.