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Ptolemaeus

Arabus et Latinus

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Work A.1

Ptolemy
Almagest

Content 13 books, dealing with cosmology (I), the diurnal movement (II), the Sun (III), the Moon (IV-V), eclipses (VI), the fixed stars (VII-VIII), Mercury (IX), Venus and Mars (X), Jupiter and Saturn (XI), retrogradation (XII) and planetary latitudes (XIII).

Origin Greek (Μαθηματικὴ σύνταξις, ‘Mathematical Treatise’).

Bibl.General: F. Boll, ‘Studien über Claudius Ptolemäus. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie und Astrologie’, Jahrbücher für Classische Philologie, Suppl. 21 (1894), 49-244: 66-76; O. Neugebauer, A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy, Berlin-New York, 1975, I, 21-261, and II, 836-838; R. R. Newton, The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy, Baltimore, 1977; R. R. Newton, The Origins of Ptolemy’s Astronomical Parameters, Baltimore, 1982; R. R. Newton, The Origins of Ptolemy’s Astronomical Tables, Baltimore, 1985; J. P. Britton, Models and Precision. The Quality of Ptolemy’s Observations and Parameters, New York, 1992; L. Taub, Ptolemy’s Universe. The Natural Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Ptolemy’s Astronomy, Chicago, 1993; G. Van Brummelen, Mathematical Tables in Ptolemy’s Almagest, PhD Dissertation, Simon Fraser University, 1993; B. R. Goldstein, ‘Saving the Phenomena: The Background to Ptolemy’s Planetary Theory’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 28 (1997), 1-12; J. Evans, ‘The Origins of Ptolemy’s Cosmos’, in Cosmology Through Time. Ancient and Modern Cosmologies in the Mediterranean Area, eds S. Colafrancesco, G. Giobbi, Milano, 2003, 123-132; A. Jones, ‘Ptolemy’s Mathematical Models and Their Meaning’, in Mathematics and the Historian’s Craft: The Kenneth O. May Lectures, eds M. Kinyon, G. van Brummelen, New York, 2005, 23-42; B. R. Goldstein, ‘What’s New in Ptolemy’s Almagest?’, Nuncius 22 (2007), 261-285; R. Fitzpatrick, A Modern Almagest. An Updated Version of Ptolemy’s Model of the Solar System, The University of Texas at Austin, 2010 [published online]; O. Pedersen, A Survey of the Almagest. With Annotation and New Commentary by Alexander Jones, New York-Dordrecht, 2011 (first edition 1974); G. Aujac, Claude Ptolémée: Astronome, astrologue, géographe, Paris, 2012, third edition (first edition 1993), 23-67; J. Feke, Ptolemy’s Philosophy. Mathematics as a Way of Life, Princeton-Oxford, 2018. Specific: G. W. Hill, ‘Ptolemy’s Problem’, Astronomical Journal 21 (1900), 33-35; J. K. Fotheringham, G. Longbottom, ‘The Secular Acceleration of the Moon’s Mean Motion as Determined from the Occultations in the Almagest’, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 75 (1915), 377-395; A. Rome, ‘Le problème de l’équation du temps chez Ptolémée’, Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles 59 (1939), 211-224; J. Mogenet, ‘L’introduction à l’Almageste’, Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Classe des Lettres et des Sciences Morales et Politiques. Mémoires 51.2 (1956), 1-51; V. Petersen, O. Schmidt, ‘The Determination of the Longitude of the Apogee of the Orbit of of the Sun According to Hipparchus and Ptolemy’, Centaurus 12 (1967), 73-96; N. M. Swerdlow, Ptolemy’s Theory of the Distances and Sizes of the Planets: A Study of the Scientific Foundations of Medieval Cosmology, PhD Dissertation, Yale University, 1968; J. P. Britton, ‘Ptolemy’s Determination of the Obliquity of the Ecliptic’, Centaurus 14 (1969), 29-41; O. Pedersen, ‘Logistics and the Theory of Functions: An essay in the history of Greek mathematics’, Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences 24 (1974), 29-50;E. Glowatzki, H. Göttsche, Die Sehnentafel des Klaudios Ptolemaios. Nach den historischen Formelplänen neu berechnet, Munich, 1976; K. Okruhlik, ‘The Interplay Between Theory and Observation in the Solar Model of Hipparchus and Ptolemy’, Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association (1978), 73-82; R. C. Riddell, ‘The Latitudes of Venus and Mercury in the Almagest’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 19 (1978), 95-111; B. R. Goldstein, ‘Problems Raised by Ptolemy’s Lunar Tables’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 13 (1982), 195-205; J. Evans, ‘Fonction et origine probable du point équant de Ptolémée’, Revue d’Histoire des Sciences 37 (1984), 193-213; C. M. Taisbak, ‘Eleven Eighty-Thirds. Ptolemy’s Reference to Eratosthenes in Almagest 1.12’, Centaurus 27 (1984), 165-172; K. P. Moesgaard, ‘In Chase of an Origin for the Mean Planetary Motions in Ptolemy’s Almagest’, in From Ancient Omens to Statistical Mechanics. Essays on the Exact Sciences Presented to Asger Aaboe, eds J. L. Bergrenn, B. R. Goldstein, Copenhagen, 1987, 43-54; D. Rawlins, ‘Ancient Heliocentrists, Ptolemy, and the Equant’, American Journal of Physics 55 (1987), 235-239; N. M. Swerdlow, ‘Ptolemy’s Theory of the Inferior Planets’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 20 (1989), 30-59; G. Van Brummelen, ‘Lunar and Planetary Interpolation Tables in Ptolemy’s Almagest’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 25 (1994), 297-311; B. van Dalen, ‘On Ptolemy’s Table for the Equation of Time’, Centaurus 37 (1994), 97-153 (reprinted in B. van Dalen, Islamic Astronomical Tables. Mathematical Analysis and Historical Investigation, Farnham-Burlington, 2013, II); C. Mínguez, ‘El prefacio al Almagesto de Ptolomeo’, Thema: Revista de Filosofía 14 (1995), 17-35; M. T. Riley, ‘Ptolemy’s Use of His Predecessors’ Data’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 125 (1995), 221-250: 236-242; P. Del Santo, G. Strano, ‘Observational Evidence and the Evolution of Ptolemy’s Lunar Model’, Nuncius 11 (1996), 93-122; J. Nevalainen, ‘The Accuracy of the Ecliptic Longitude in Ptolemy’s Mercury Model’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 27 (1996), 147-160; D. MacMinn, ‘An Analysis of Ptolemy’s Treatment of Retrograde Motion’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 29 (1998), 257-270; G. Van Brummelen, ‘Computer Animations of Ptolemy’s Models of the Motions of the Sun, Moon and Planets’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 29 (1998), 271-274; B. Goldstein, A. C. Bowen, ‘The Role of Observations in Ptolemy’s Lunar Theories’, in Ancient Astronomy and Celestial Divination, ed. N. M. Swerdlow, Cambridge (Mass.)-London, 1999, 341-356; A. Jones, ‘A Likely Source of an Observation Report in Ptolemy’s Almagest’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 54 (1999), 255-258; J. M. Steele, ‘A Re-analysis of the Eclipse Observations in Ptolemy’s Almagest’, Centaurus 42 (2000), 89-108; H. Thurston, ‘Greek Mathematical Astronomy Reconsidered’, Isis 93 (2002), 58-69; H. Thurston, ‘Ptolemy and the Arc between the Tropics’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 34 (2003), 231-232; A. Jones, ‘An ‘Almagest’ Before Ptolemy’s?’, in Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences in Honour of David Pingree, eds C. Burnett, J. P. Hogendijk, K. Plofker, M. Yano, Leiden-Boston, 2004, 129-136; C. C. Carman, ‘Rounding Numbers: Ptolemy’s Calculation of the Earth-Sun Distance’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 63 (2005), 205-242; D. W. Duke, ‘Ptolemy’s Treatment of the Outer Planets’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 59 (2005), 169-187; A. Jones, D. W. Duke, ‘Ptolemy’s Planetary Mean Motions Revisited’, Centaurus 47 (2005), 226-235; N. W. Swerdlow, ‘Ptolemy’s Theories of the Latitudes of the Planets in the Almagest, Handy Tables, and Planetary Hypotheses, in Wrong for the Right Reasons, eds J. Z. Buchwald, A. Franklin, Dordrecht-Berlin, 2005, 41-71; D. W. Duke, ‘A Year Length Hidden in Ancient Planetary Mean Motions’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 40 (2009) 213-216; C. C. Carman, ‘La Refutabilidad del Sistema de Epiciclos y Deferentes de Ptolomeo’, Principia 14 (2010), 211-239; N. Sidoli, ‘Mathematical Tables in Ptolemy’s Almagest’, Historia Mathematica 41 (2014), 13-37; A. Jones, ‘Interpolated Observations and Historical Observational Records in Ptolemy’s Astronomy’, in The Circulation of Astronomical Knowledge in the Ancient World, ed. J. M. Steele, Leiden-Boston, 2016, 316-349; L. V. Morrison, C. Y. Hohenkerk, F. R. Stephenson, ‘The Almagest Greek and Roman Occultations Re-Visited’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 48 (2017), 405-416; Szapiro (A.), ‘Assumptions behind Ptolemy’s Proof of the Earth’s Centrality’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 49 (2018), 196-215. Star Catalogue: F. Boll, ‘Die Sternkataloge des Hipparch und des Ptolemaios’, Bibliotheca Mathematica 2 (1901), 185-195; C. H. F. Peters, E. B. Knobel, Ptolemy’s Catalogue of Stars. A Revision of the Almagest, Washington, 1915; H. Vogt, ‘Versuch einer Wiederherstellung von Hipparchs Fixsternverzeichnis’, Astronomische Nachrichten 224 (1925), 17-54; J. L. E. Dreyer, ‘On the Origin of Ptolemy’s Catalogue of Stars’, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 77 (1917), 528-539; J. L. E. Dreyer, ‘On the Origin of Ptolemy’s Catalogue of Stars: Second Paper’, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 78 (1918), 343-349; A. Czwalina, Arthur, ‘Über einige Beobachtungsfehler des Ptolemäus und die Deutung ihrer Ursachen’, Centaurus 5 (1958), 283-306; Y. Maeyama, ‘Ancient Stellar Observations: Timocharis, Aristyllus, Hipparchus, Ptolemy: The Dates and Accuracies’, Centaurus 27 (1984), 280-310; J. Evans, ‘On the Origin of the Ptolemaic Star Catalogue’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 18 (1987), 155-172 and 233-278; J. Samsό, F. Castellό, ‘An Hypothesis on the Epoch of Ptolemy’s Star Catalogue According to the Authors of the Alfonsine Tables’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 19 (1988), 115-120; A. T. Fomenko, V. V. Kalashnikov, G. V. Nosovsky, ‘When Was Ptolemy’s Star Catalogue in Almagest Compiled in Reality? Statistical Analysis’, Acta Applicandae Mathematicae 17 (1989), 203-229; G. Graßhoff, The History of Ptolemy’s Star Catalogue, New York, 1990; M. Y. Shevchenko, ‘An Analysis of Errors in the Star Catalogues of Ptolemy and Ulugh Beg’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 21 (1990), 187-201; J. Włodarczyk, ‘Notes on the Compilation of Ptolemy’s Catalogue of Stars’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 21 (1990), 283-295; N. M. Swerdlow, ‘The Enigma of Ptolemy’s Catalogue of Stars’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 23 (1992), 173-183; A. T. Fomenko, V. V. Kalashnikov, G. V. Nosovsky, Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s Almagest, Boca Raton, 1993; W. Schlosser, B. Hoffmann, ‘Ptolemy’s Milky Way and the Modern Surface Photometries in the Visual Spectral Range’, in Science in Western and Eastern Civilization in Carolingian Times, eds P. L. Butzer, D. Lohrmann, Basel-Boston, 1993, 221-228; A. K. Dambis, Y. N. Efremov, ‘Dating Ptolemy’s Star Catalogue Through Proper Motions: The Hipparchan Epoch’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 31 (2000), 115-134; B. E. Schaefer, ‘The Latitude of the Observer of the Almagest Star Catalogue’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 32 (2001), 1-42; D. W. Duke, ‘Associations between the Ancient Star Catalogues’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 56 (2002), 435-450; D. W. Duke, ‘Dating the Almagest Star Catalogue Using Proper Motions: A Reconsideration’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 33 (2002), 45-55; H. R. Dobler, ‘The Dating of Ptolemy’s Star Catalogue’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 33 (2002), 265-277; D. W. Duke, ‘The Depth of Association between the Ancient Star Catalogues’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 34 (2003), 227-230; E. Wright, ‘Visualization of the Almagest Star Catalogue’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 38 (2007), 222-226; F. Verbunt, R. H. van Gent, ‘The Star Catalogues of Ptolemaios and Ulugh Beg. Machine-readable Versions and Comparison with the Modern HIPPARCOS Catalogue’, Astronomy & Astrophysics 544 (2012), A.31, 34 pp.; B. E. Schaefer, ‘The Thousand Star Magnitudes in the Catalogues of Ptolemy, Al Sufi, and Tycho are All Corrected for Atmospheric Extinction’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 44 (2013), 47-91. In Greek (Hellenistic/Byzantine): J. Mogenet, L’introduction à l’Almageste, Bruxelles, 1956; J. Mogenet, ‘Sur quelques scholies de l’Almageste’, in Le monde grec. Pensée, littérature, histoire, documents. Hommages à Claire Préaux, eds J. Bingen, G. Cambier, G. Nachterhael, Bruxelles, 1975, 302-322; A. Jones, ‘Ptolemy’s First Commentator’, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 80 (1990), i-vi and 1-61; D. Pingree, ‘The Teaching of the Almagest in Late Antiquity’, in The Sciences in Greco-Roman Society, ed. T. D. Barnes, Edmonton, 1994, 75-98 (reprinted in Pathways into the Study of Ancient Sciences. Selected Essays by David Pingree, eds I. Pingree, J. Steele, Philadelphia, 2014, 135-158); A. Jones, ‘A Posy of Almagest Scholia’, Centaurus 45 (2003), 69-78; A. Tihon, ‘Nicolas Eudaimonoioannes, réviseur de l’Almageste?’, Byzantion 73 (2003), 151-161; F. Acerbi, N. Vinel, B. Vitrac, ‘Les Prolégomènes à l’Almageste. Une édition à partir des manuscrits les plus anciens. Introduction générale – Parties I-III’, SCIAMVS 11 (2010), 53-210; A. Bernard, ‘The Significance of Ptolemy’s Almagest for its Early Readers’, Revue de Synthèse 131 (2010), 495-521; A. Jones, ‘Ancient Rejection and Adoption of Ptolemy’s Frame of Reference for Longitudes’, in Ptolemy in Perspective. Use and Criticism of His Work from Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century’, ed. A. Jones, Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London-New York, 2010, 11-44; F. Acerbi, ‘Tolomeo in Laurenziana: Il primo papiro della Psephophoria (PL II/33)’, Analecta Papyrologica 26 (2014), 37-73; F. Acerbi, ‘Traces of Menelaus’ Sphaerica in Greek Scholia to the Almagest’, SCIAMVS 16 (2015), 91-124; F. Acerbi, ‘The Mathematical Scholia Vetera to Almagest I.10-15. With a Critical Edition of the Diagrams and an Explanation of Their Symmetry Properties’, SCIAMVS 18 (2017), 133-259. In Syriac: P. Kunitzsch, ‘Über einige Spuren der syrischen Almagestübersetzung’, in ΠΡΙΣΜΑΤΑ. Naturwissenschaftsgeschichtliche Studien. Festschrift für Willy Hartner, eds. Y. Maeyama, W. G. Saltzer, Wiesbaden, 1977, 203-210 (reprinted in P. Kunitzsch, Stars and Numbers. Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds, Aldershot, 2004, III). In Pahlavi: S. Buscherini, ‘The Translation of Almagest in Pahlavi: Zero in Persian Numerical System’, in Non licet stare caelestibus. Studies on Astronomy and its History offered to Salvo De Meis, eds A. Panaino, E. Bacchi, S. Buscherini, P. Ognibene, Milano-Udine, 2014, 137-150. In Sanskrit: D. Pingree, ‘Indian Reception of Muslim Versions of Ptolemaic Astronomy’, in Tradition, Transmission, Transformation. Proceedings of Two Conferences on Pre-Modern Science Held at the University of Oklahoma, eds F. J. Ragep, S. P. Ragep, Leiden-New York-Köln, 1996, 471-485. In Arabic: M. Alonso, ‘La tercera version del Almagesto en el siglo XII’, Al-Andalus 10 (1945), 453-454; P. Kunitzsch, Der Almagest – Die Syntaxis Mathematica des Claudius Ptolemäus in arabisch-lateinischer Überlieferung, Wiesbaden, 1974; P. Kunitzsch, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalāḥ: Zur Kritik der Koordinatenüberlieferung im Sternkatalog des Almagest. Arabischer Text nebst deutscher Übersetzung, Einleitung und Anhang, Göttingen, 1975 (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse, Dritte Folge 94); P. Kunitzsch, ‘Arabic Criticism of Ancient Greek Traditions: Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ and the Almagest’, in Proceedings of the First International Symposium for the History of Arabic Science. April 5-12, 1976, eds A. Y. al Hassan, G. Karmi, N. Namnun, Aleppo, 1978, II, 85-90; F. Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen Scrifttums, VI: Astronomie, Leiden, 1978, 88-94 (no. I); A. I. Sabra, ‘An Eleventh-Century Refutation of Ptolemy’s Planetary Theory’, in Science and History. Studies in Honor of Edward Rosen, eds E. Hilftein, P. Czartoryski, F. D. Grande, Wroclaw-Warszawa-Krakόw-Gdańsk, 1978 (Studia Copernicana, XVI), 117-131 (reprinted in A. I. Sabra, Optics, Astronomy, and Logic. Studies in Arabic Science and Philosophy, Aldershot, 1994, XIV); G. Saliba, ‘Ibn Sīnā and Abū ʿUbayd al-Jūzjānī: The Problem of the Ptolemaic Equant’, Journal for the History of Arabic Science 4 (1980), 376-403 (reprinted in G. Saliba, A History of Arabic Astronomy. Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, New York-London, 1994, 85-112); A. I. Sabra, ‘The Andalusian Revolt Against Ptolemy: Averroes and al-Biṭrūjī’, in Transformation and Tradition in the Sciences. Essays in Honor of I. Bernard Cohen, Cambridge, 1984, 133-153 (reprinted in A. I. Sabra, Optics, Astronomy, and Logic. Studies in Arabic Science and Philosophy, Aldershot, 1994, XIV); P. Kunitzsch, Der Sternkatalog des Almagest. Die arabisch-mittelalterliche Tradition, 3 vols, Wiesbaden, 1986-1991; G. Saliba, ‘The Role of the Almagest Commentaries in Medieval Arabic Astronomy: A Preliminary Survey of Ṭūsī’s Redaction of Ptolemy’s Almagest’, Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences 37 (1987), 3-20 (reprinted in G. Saliba, A History of Arabic Astronomy. Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, New York-London, 1994, 143-160); G. Saliba, ‘A Medieval Arabic Reform of the Ptolemaic Lunar Model’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 20 (1989), 157-164; G. Saliba, ‘Al-Qushjī’s Reform of the Ptolemaic Model for Mercury’, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 3 (1993), 161-203; P. Kunitzsch, ‘Die astronomische Terminologie im Almagest’, in La formation du vocabulaire scientifique et intellectuel dans le monde arabe, ed. D. Jacquart, Turnhout, 1994, 55-65 (reprinted in P. Kunitzsch, Stars and Numbers. Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds, Aldershot, 2004, IV); G. Saliba, ‘A Sixteenth-Century Arabic Critique of Ptolemaic Astronomy: The Work of Shams al-Dīn al-Khafrī’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 25 (1994), 15-38; G. Saliba, ‘Early Arabic Critique of Ptolemaic Cosmology: A Ninth-Century Text on the Motion of the Celestial Spheres’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 25 (1994), 115-141; P. Kunitzsch, ‘The Role of al-Andalus in the Transmission of Ptolemy’s Planisphaerium and Almagest’, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaft 10 (1995-96), 147-155 (reprinted in P. Kunitzsch, Stars and Numbers. Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds, Aldershot, 2004, VII); J. Lay, ‘L’abrégé de l’Almageste. Un inédit d’Averroès en version hébraïque’, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 6 (1996), 23-61; G. Saliba, ‘A Redeployment of Mathematics in a Sixteenth-Century Arabic Critique of Ptolemaic Astronomy’, in Perspectives arabes et médiévales sur la tradition scientifique philosophique grecque, eds A. Hasnawi, A. Elamrani-Jamal, M. Aouad, Leuven-Paris, 1997, 105-122; G. Saliba, ‘Critiques of Ptolemaic Astronomy in Islamic Spain’, Al-Qanṭara 22 (1999), 3-25; P. Kunitzsch, ‘A Hitherto Unknown Arabic Manuscript of the Almagest’, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaft 14 (2001), 31-37 (reprinted in P. Kunitzsch, Stars and Numbers. Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds, Aldershot, 2004, V); J. Samsό, ‘Ibn al-Haytham and Jābir b. Aflaḥ´s Criticism of Ptolemy’s Determi­nation of the Parameters of Mercury’, Suhayl 2 (2001), 199-225 (reprinted in J. Samsό, Astrometeorologίa y astrologίa medievales, Barcelona, 2008, II, VII); J. Bellver, ‘On Jābir b. Aflāḥ’s Criticism of Ptolemy’s Almagest’, in A shared Legacy. Islamic Science East and West. Homage to Professor J. M. Millàs Villacrosa, eds E. Calvo Labarta et al., Barcelona, 2008, 181-189; J. Bellver, ‘El lugar del Iṣlāḥ al-Maŷisṭī de Ŷābir b. Aflaḥ en la llamada «Rebelión andalusí contra la astronomía ptolemaica»’, Al-Qanṭara 30 (2009), 83-136; E. Nicolai, La tradizione greco-latina e arabo-latina del I libro dell’Almagesto. Saggio di analisi e traduzione, PhD dissertation, University of Padua, 2010; J. Thomann, ‘Ein al-Fārābī zugeschriebener Kommentar zum Almagest (HS. Tehran Mağlis 6531), Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 19 (2010-2011), 37-76; P. Kunitzsch, ‘Translators’ Errors in the Almagest, Arabic and Latin’, in Adorare caelestia, gubernare terrena: Atti del colloquio internazionale in onore di Paolo Lucentini (Napoli, 6-7 Novembre 2007), eds P. Arfé, I. Caiazzo, A. Sannino, Turnhout, 2011, 283-293; D. Grupe, ‘The ‘Thābit-Version’ of Ptolemy’s Almagest in MS Dresden Db.87’, Suhayl 11 (2012), 147-153; A. M. Gamini, H. M. Hamedani, ‘Al-Shīrāzī and the Empirical Origin of Ptolemy’s Equant in His Model of the Superior Planets’, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 23 (2013), 47-67; M. Forcada, ‘Ibn Bājja’s Discourse on Cosmology (Kalām fī l-hay’a) and the “Revolt” Against Ptolemy’, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaft 20-21 (2012-2014), 64-167; S. M. Mozaffari, ‘Bīrūnī’s Examination of the Path of the Centre of the Epicycle in Ptolemy’s Lunar Model’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 45 (2014), 123-127; J. Thomann, ‘Al-Fārābīs Kommentar zum Almagest in sekundärer Überlieferung bei Ibn aṣ-Ṣalāḥ: Ein voläufiger Bericht’, Asia 69 (2015), 99-113; S. Sela, ‘Al-Farghānī on the 48 Ptolemaic Constellations: A Newly Discovered Text in Hebrew Translation’, Aleph 16 (2016), 249-365. In Hebrew: M. Zonta, ‘La tradizione ebraica dell’Almagesto di Tolomeo’, Henoch 15 (1993), 325-350. In Latin (see also A.1 and C.1): B. R. Goldstein, J. Chabás, ‘Ptolemy, Bianchini, and Copernicus: Tables for Planetary Latitudes’, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 58 (2004), 453-473; A.-P. Segonds, C. Luna, ‘The Greek Text of Ptolemy, Almagest XIII, as a Source of Book VI of Copernicus’s De revolutionibus’, Journal for the History of Astronomy 44 (2013), 413-427.

Ed. The Greek original text was first published by Simon Grynaeus and Joachim Camerarius in Basel in 1538, together with an appended part containing Theon of Alexandria’s commentary on the Almagest. Critical edition by J. L. Heiberg, Claudii Ptolemaei opera quae exstant omnia, I: Syntaxis mathematica, 2 vols, Leipzig, 1898-1903 (with supplement on the MSS in vol. II: Opera astronomica minora, Leipzig, 1907, xviii-cxlix). Heiberg’s text has been translated into German by K. Manitius, Des Claudius Ptolemäus Handbuch der Astronomie, 2 vols, Leipzig, 1912-1913; and into English by G. J. Toomer, Ptolemy’s Almagest, London, 1984 (new edition Princeton, 1998). A former edition of the Greek text, together with a French translation, was made by N. Halma, Composition mathématique de Claude Ptolémée traduite pour la première fois du grec en français, sur les manuscrits originaux de la Bibliothèque Impériale de Paris, 2 vols, Paris, 1813-1816 (on the basis of several manuscripts and early printed editions available at the Bibliothèque nationale de France, but without critical apparatus). The Arabic and Latin texts are unpublished, except for the star catalogue, by Kunitzsch, Der Sternkatalog des Almagest… (1986-1991), and for Book I, by Nicolai, La tradizione greco-latina…

Greek commentaries

Arabic translations

Arabic commentaries

Latin translations

Latin commentaries