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Ptolemaeus

Arabus et Latinus

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Work A.1.2

Ptolemy
Almagesti (tr. Gerard of Cremona)

Text ‘(Paris, BnF, lat. 14738) (1r-1v) [preface of translator] Quidam princeps nomine Albuguafe in libro suo, quem scientiarum elect<ionem> et verborum nominavit pulcritudinem, dixit quod hic Ptholomeus fuit vir in disciplinarum scientia prepotens, preminens aliis, in duabus artibus subtilis, id est geometria et astrologia, et fecit libros multos — In hoc autem libro sunt xiii distinctiones, in unaquaque quarum scientie huius capitula continentur, que in uniuscuiusque earum principio dicam. (1v-17r) [book i] In prima autem dictione sunt xiiii capitula… Capitulum xiiii de scientia quantitatis arcuum equationis diei qui elevatur in spera directa cum arcubus orbis signorum datis. Ecce ubi initium primi capituli prime dictionis dedit. Bonum, Scire, fuit quod sapientibus non deviantibus visum est cum partem speculationis a parte operationis diviserunt, que sunt due sapientie partes — speram rectam absque declinatione. Expleta est dictio prima. (17r-41r) [book ii] Incipit secunda <dictio> libri Almagesti Ptholomei Phludensis, cuius capitula sunt xiii… (17v) Capitulum primum de scientia habitabilium terre. Et post ea que narravimus in dictione prima Almagesti de forma tocius et communitate — ex eis que secuntur occidentem a loco altero. Expleta est dictio secunda libri Almagesti in qua sunt figure xx: arcus orbis signorum… et ad principium Arietis ccxcii xx. (41r-55v) [book iii] Dictio tercia libri Almagesti incipit, in qua sunt capitula x… (41v) Capitulum primum de scientia quantitatis longitudinis anni et numero dierum eius. Postquam declaravimus in his que precesserunt hanc distinctionem summam eorum que premittenda erant — et per motum suum diversum in tercia parte et octavo minuto Piscis fere. Expleta est dictio tercia Almagesti. Cum additis super annos… per quos intrabis in hunc librum (followed by a table: Ferie annorum – Reductio erarum). (55v-75r) [book iv] Dictio quarta libri Almagesti. Capitulum primum ex quibus… Capitulum primum ex quibus considerationibus oportet investigationes Lune. Iam narravimus et demonstravimus in dictione que est ante hanc totum quod contingit in motu Solis — (74v) has eclipses convenientes modo quem narravimus. (75r) Expletum undecimum capitulum quod est ultimum dictionis quarte Almagesti. (75r-93v) [book v] Dictio quinta libri Almagesti xix capitula continens… Capitulum primum de artificio instrumenti ex armillis quo accipiuntur stelle et sciuntur loca earum in longitudine et latitudine. Inicium libri primi. Que vero accidunt ex applicatione Lune cum Sole in coniunctionibus et oppositionibus que sunt in eis ex eclipsibus — xxxv partes et sexta partis, et hoc est quod debuimus demonstrare. (93v-112r) [book vi] Dictio sexta Almagesti in qua sunt capitula xiii… Capitulum primum de coniunctionibus et impletionibus. Postquam sequitur quod iam precessit positio libri in applicationibus eclipsium que sunt Solis et Lune — (110v) et fines ini[ni]ciorum eclipsis et complementorum (followed by two figures and a table, f. 110v-111v). (112r) Expleta est dictio sexta. (112r-127r) [book vii] Capitulum primum de hoc quod longitudo… Capitulum primum et cum eo incipit dictio septima Almagesti Ptholomei de stellis fixis. Et postquam narravimus in dictionibus que hanc precedunt dictionem ea que accidunt in spera recta et in spera declivi — (118r) est minus illa quantitate et ita est descriptio tabularum (followed by the star catalogue, f. 118v-127r). (127v-140v) [book viii] Distinctio octava incipit cuius sunt capitula vi. Capitulum primum de affirmatione stellarum fixarum… (star catalogue, f. 127v-135v) … (136r) Capitulum secundum de modo orbis lactei nominati maiarati, id est arca. Loca vero stellarum fixarum secundum suum ordinem — ex eo quod est in figuris divisionis inclinationum Lune. Expleta est dictio octava libri Almagesti. (140v-157v) [book ix] Dictio nona et sunt in ea xi capitula… Capitulum primum libri noni Ptholomei in Almag<esto> de ordinibus sperarum Solis et Lune et quinque stellarum retrogradarum. Quantum fuit possibile aliquem loci de stellis fixis et speciebus scientie habitudinum earum secundum quantitatem — addunt vi partes Libre que fuerunt in tempore considerationis super partem unam et sextam partis Libre. Explicit dictio nona. (157v-168r) [book x] Incipit dictio decima in qua sunt capitula decem… Capitulum primum libri decimi in declaratione longitudinis longioris stelle Veneris. Radices secundum quas agitur in stella Mercurii et quantitates diversitatum et preter illud etiam summam motuum et revolutionium eius — posito locorum super xvi partes et xl minuta Cancri et illud est quod voluimus ostendere. Expleta dictio decima libri Ptholomei qui dicitur Almagesti. (168r-184r) [book xi] Incipit dictio undecima in qua sunt xii capitula… Incipit capitulum primum libri duodecimum (!) Almagesti. Et quia iam demonstravimus revolutiones motuum in stella Martis et radices eius — (184r) in illa hora pervenimus enim ad locum eius super quem videtur orbis signorum. Expleta est dictio undecima libri Almagesti. (184r-197r) [book xii] Dictio duodecima in qua sunt ixa (!) capitula… (184v) Incipit capitulum primum libri duodecimi Almagesti Ptholomei. Postquam demonstrate sunt iste res tunc iam sequitur eas etiam consideratio in eo quod est cuiusque stellarum v erraticarum — et in quinta longitudines eius vespertinas, et hec est forma tabule (followed by the table). (197r-211r) [book xiii] Capitulum primum in radicibus secundum quas agitur in cursibus stellarum v erraticarum in latitudine… Capitulum primum in… (end of sentence missing) (197v) Et quia remanserunt apud nos consequenter in scientia stellarum v erraticarum due res quarum una est scientia eius quod provenit ex cursibus in latitudine — et abbreviationem arrogantiam et collaudationem. Tunc iam sequitur et honestum est ut ponamus hic finem libro. Expleta est dictio xiiia libri Ptholomei et cum ea completur liber Almagesti de disciplinalibus. Laus Deo. Amen.’

Origin Translated from Arabic by Gerard of Cremona in Toledo between c. 1150 and 1187. The generally accepted date of 1175 for the translation has arisen from a misunderstanding of the colophon in Florence, BML, Plut. 89 sup. 45, which only implies that the translation was copied on 11 August 1175 by a certain master Thadeus the Hungarian (‘Expleta est dictio tertiadecima libri Ptholomei, et cum ea completur liber Almagesti latine vocatur vigil cura magistri Thadei Ungari anno domini millesimo clxxv Toleti consumatis, anno autem Arabum quingentessimo lxx° mensis octavi xi° die translatus a magistro Girardo Cremonensi de Arabico in Latinum’). The translation was made on the basis of the two Arabic translations, namely al-Ḥajjāj’s version for Books I-IX and Isḥāq’s version for Books X-XIII, while the star catalogue in Books VII-VIII mainly follows Isḥāq’s version, but also includes elements from al-Ḥajjāj’s version. Gerard’s translation exists in two versions, an original version (Kunitzsch’s Class A) and a revised version (Class B) (see Kunitzsch, Der Sternkatalog…, II, 1-10). One important characteristic of Class A is a mistake in the star catalogue, where the latitude of certain stars is given as 300 instead of 60 (reflecting the western and eastern values of the letter sīn respectively), as well as a number of mistakes which were fully corrected in Class B. Because the Florence MS quoted above belongs to Class B, although not yet with all its final corrections, Kunitzsch logically concludes ‘that Gerard must have begun the translation of the Almagest long time before 1175, and that he finished it some time after 1175’ (‘Gerard’s Translation…’, 82).

Bibl. C. H. Haskins, Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science, Cambridge, 1927 (2nd ed.), 104-108; F. J. Carmody, Arabic Astronomical and Astrological Sciences in Latin Translation. A Critical Bibliography, Berkeley-Los Angeles, 1956, 15 (no. 1); P. Kunitzsch, Der Almagest – Die Syntaxis Mathematica des Claudius Ptolemäus in arabisch-lateinischer Überlieferung, Wiesbaden, 1974, 83-112; P. Kunitzsch, Der Sternkatalog des Almagest. Die arabisch-mittelalterliche Tradition, 3 vols, Wiesbaden, 1986-1991, II; P. Kunitzsch, ‘Gerard’s Translation of Astronomical Texts, Especially the Almagest’, in Gerardo da Cremona, ed. P. Pizzamiglio, Cremona, 1992, 71-84 (reprinted in P. Kunitzsch, Stars and Numbers. Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds, Aldershot, 2004, I); P. Kunitzsch, ‘Gerhard von Cremona als Übersetzer des Almagest’, in Festgabe für Hans-Rudolf Singer, zum 65. Geburtstag am 6. April 1990, ed. M. Forstner, Frankfurt/Main-Bern-New York-Paris, 1991, 347-358 (reprinted in P. Kunitzsch, Stars and Numbers. Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds, Aldershot, 2004, II); C. Burnett, ‘Why Study Ptolemy’s Almagest? The Evidence of MS Melbourne, State Library of Victoria, Sinclair 224’, La Trobe Journal 81 (2008), 127-143; J. N. Crossley, ‘Ptolemy’s Almagest: Its Dates and the Dating of Oxford, All Souls College, ms. 95’, La Trobe Journal 81 (2008), 118-126; C. Burnett, ‘‘Ptolemaeus in Almagesto dixit’: The Transformation of Ptolemy’s Almagest in its Transmission via Arabic into Latin’ in Transformationen antiker Wissenschaften, eds G. Toepfer, H. Böhme, Berlin-New York, 2010, 115-140; P. Kunitzsch, ‘Translators’ Errors in the Almagest, Arabic and Latin’, in Adorare caelestia, gubernare terrena: Atti del colloquio internazionale in onore di Paolo Lucentini (Napoli, 6-7 Novembre 2007), eds P. Arfé, I. Caiazzo, A. Sannino, Turnhout, 2011, 283-293; H. Zepeda, The Medieval Latin Transmission of the Menelaus Theorem, PhD Dissertation, University of Oklahoma at Norman, 2013, 28-61, 130-144; C. P. E. Nothaft, ‘A Reluctant Innovator: Graeco-Arabic Astronomy in the Computus of Magister Cunestabulus (1175)’, Early Science and Medicine 22 (2017), 24-54.

Ed. None, except for Book I, edited by E. Nicolai, La tradizione greco-latina…, 201-224 (from ed. Venice 1515); the preface of the translator, ed. and tr. Burnett, ‘Ptolemaeus in Almagesto…’, 125-130; chapter I.1 in its three versions, ed. Burnett, ‘Ptolemaeus in Almagesto…’, 131-139; the star catalogue in VII.5-VIII.1, ed. Kunitzsch, Der Sternkatalog…, II; the Menelaus theorem in I.12, ed. Zepeda, 361-371, and a selection of marginalia in connection with the Menelaus theorem from nine MSS, ed. Zepeda, 372-432.

EDS

Venice, Petrus Liechtenstein, 1515, sig. 1r-152rImages|Text

MSS

Bergamo, BCAM, MA 388 (Sigma II 2), s. XV, f. 48v-49r

Berlin, SBPK, lat. fol. 753 (Görres 72), s. XV, f. 2r-236v

Bruges, OB, 519, s. XIII, f. 1r-257r

Bruges, OB, 520, s. XIV, f. 120r-135v

Cambrai, BM, 953 (851), s. XIII, f. 1ra-330ra

Cracow, BJ, 589, s. XV, f. 1r-208v

Cracow, BJ, 590, s. XIV, f. 1ra-142va

Cracow, BJ, 619, s. XIV-XV, f. 10r-272r

Erfurt, UFB, Amplon. F. 375, s. XIV, f. 85r-88r and 93r-112v

Erfurt, UFB, Amplon. Q. 349, s. XIV, f. 108r-110v

Florence, BML, Conv. Soppr. 414, s. XIII-XIV, f. 46r-60r

Florence, BML, Plut. 89 sup. 45, s. XIII, f. 1ra-183va

Florence, BML, Plut. 89 sup. 57, s. XIII, f. 1r-100v

Florence, BNC, Conv. Soppr. A.IV.1678, s. XV, f. 1r-192v

Florence, BNC, Conv. Soppr. J.III.24 (San Marco 177), s. XIII-XIV, f. 1ra-76rb

Florence, BNC, Conv. Soppr. J.IV.20 (San Marco 182), s. XIV-XV, f. 1r-140r

Florence, BNC, Magliabech. XI.114, s. XIV-XV, f. I/21r-36v

Klosterneuburg, SB, 682, s. XV, f. 1r-224r

London, BL, Burney 275, s. XIII-XIV, f. 390va-560vb

London, BL, Harley 625, s. XIV, f. 1v-6v

London, BL, Harley 625, s. XIV, f. 173r-174v

London, BL, Sloane 2795, s. XIII, f. 1r-86v

Madrid, BN, 10113 (olim Toledo 98-15), s. XIII, f. 1ra-134r

Manchester, JRL, 66, s. XV, f. 1r-169r

Melbourne, SLV, RARES 091 P95A (olim *f 091/P95A), s. XIII, f. 1ra-173va

Melk, SB, 601 (olim 51), s. XV, f. 199ra-209r

Memmingen, SB, 2° 2,33, s. XV, f. 1r-148v

New Haven, YU-BRBML, 1150, s. XV, f. 8r-8v

Nürnberg, GNM, 42555, s. XIII, f. (1r-12v)

Nürnberg, SB, Cent. III 25, s. XV, f. 1r-92v

Oxford, ASC, 95, s. XIII, f. 1ra-120vb

Oxford, BL, Digby 57, s. XIV, f. 142r-143r

Oxford, BL, Digby 190, s. XIII-XIV, f. 202r-209r

Oxford, BL, Laud. Misc. 644, s. XIII, f. 210rb-210vb

Oxford, NC, 281, s. XIV, f. 2r-242v

Paris, BnF, lat. 7254, s. XII, f. 1r-144r

Paris, BnF, lat. 7255, s. XIII, f. 1r-147r

Paris, BnF, lat. 7256, s. XIII, f. 1ra-163vb

Paris, BnF, lat. 7257, s. XIII, f. 2ra-109v

Paris, BnF, lat. 7258, s. XIII-XIV, f. 1r-334r

Paris, BnF, lat. 7259, s. XIV-XV, f. 2ra-210va

Paris, BnF, lat. 7260, s. XV, f. 1r-160v

Paris, BnF, lat. 7268, s. XIII, f. 1r-104r

Paris, BnF, lat. 7292, s. XV, f. 334r-345v

Paris, BnF, lat. 14738, s. XII, f. 1r-211vaImages

Paris, BnF, lat. 16200, s. XIII, f. 1ra-191vb

Paris, BnF, lat. 16657, s. XIII, f. 133r-146v

Paris, BnF, lat. 17864, s. XIII, f. 1r-116v

Parma, BP, 718-720, s. XIII-XIV, f. 74r-271r

Salamanca, BU, 2044, s. XVI, f. 1r-230v

San Marino (Ca), HL, HM 65, s. XIII, f. 1r-270v

St Petersburg, BAN, F. 8 (XXAb/IIII), s. XIII, f. 252va-253ra

Vatican, BAV, Barb. lat. 173, s. XIII-XIV, f. 1ra-185ra

Vatican, BAV, Barb. lat. 182, s. XV, f. 3ra-99rb

Vatican, BAV, Barb. lat. 336, s. XV, f. 1ra-297ra

Vatican, BAV, Pal. lat. 1365, s. XIV, f. 1r-206r

Vatican, BAV, Vat. lat. 2057, s. XIII, f. 1r-196r

Vatican, BAV, Vat. lat. 6788, s. XIII, f. 1r-178r

Venice, BNM, lat. VI.20 (3063), s. XIV, f. 129r-130v

Venice, BNM, lat. VIII.10 (3266), s. XIII, f. 1r-188r

Vienna, ÖNB, 4799, s. XV, f. 1ra-77va

Wolfenbüttel, HAB, 147 Gud. Lat. 4° (4451), s. XIII, f. 3ra-161vb

Wroclaw, BU, R 43, s. XIII-XIV, f. 1ra-166rb

―, Private library, Unknown (olim Robert B. Honeyman Jr., olim Augsburg, UB, Cod. I.2.2° 19), ―, s. XIII, f. 1r-354

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