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Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus

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Work A.6.1

Ptolemy
Planispherium (tr. Hermann of Carinthia)

Text

‘(ed. Heiberg and Burnett) [translator’s preface] Quemadmodum Ptolomeus et ante eum nonnulli veteris auctoritatis viri antiquas seculi scribunt historias — quam qua id ipsum Maslem in Arabicam transtulit. [text] Cum sit possibile, Iesure, et plerumque necessarium ut in plano represententur circuli in speram corpoream incidentes, tamquam plana esset, consultum visum est in veritate scientie — cum ipsis circulis tropicis et cum circulis meridianis signa distinguentibus.’

Text

Maslama’s notes   ‘(ed. Kunitzsch/Lorch) [1] In hunc librum Maslem commentans ait ut descriptis equidistantibus recto hinc unde circulis deducatur… [2] Addit Maslem argumentum: lineam he in directum… [3] Hic locus est argumenti Maslem: quia deprehensum est, inquid, quota distantia… [4] Dixit Meslem: et est ad hoc etiam via facilior… [51] Dixit Maslem: et si intenderet Ptolemeus… [52] Dixit Meslem: si animadvertisset Ptholomeus… [6] Hic subiungit Maslem quod cum huiusmodi circulus… [71] Noto igitur, ut Maslem addit, circulo equidistante zodiaco… [72] Alia translatio, dixit Meslem: quando facies circulum equidistantem… [81] Dixit Maslem: et non declaravit quod centra non sunt super… [82] Dixit Meslem: non declaravit quod centra non sint super… [91] In alio, dixit Maslem: et ex complemento huius questionis… [92] Alia translatio, dixit Meslem: de complemento huius propositionis… [93] Deinde argumentum quod Maslem subiungit addends… [101] Et ex sermone eius etiam est: verumtamen complebo quod oportet… [102] Et ut compleam quod oportet compleri… [11] Addit Maslem quoniam hec linea recta secat — recto medium secet, et hunc per zodiaci polum necessario transire.’

Text

Maslama’s extra chapter   ‘(ed. Kunitzsch/Lorch) [class ii] Capitulum quod non est de libro quod edidit Abualcacim Maslem filius Ameti. Dixit Maslem filius Hameti: Iam rememoratus est Ptolemeus in hoc libro qualiter describamus circulum orizontis — tibi quod volueris de scientia tabularum. Et laus sit Deo creatori gentium. [class iii] Sectio que non est de libro quam dixit Meslem usque ad primam sectionem quam Ptholomeus. Iam memoravit Ptholomeus in hoc libro quomodo lineentur orizontes — cum eodem numero elevatur cum quo occidit. Et secundum hoc fit artificium laminarum.’

Text

Maslama’s astrolabe chapters   ‘(ed. Kunitzsch/Lorch) Et hec capitula non pretermittat qui voluerit facere astrolabium que compilavimus de figura sectionis. Ad scientiam extrahendi elevationis signorum in orbe recto — et quod provenerit est nadair gradus occasus. Intelligas. Explicit.’

Text

Propositiones planisperii   ‘(ed. Kunitzsch/Lorch) Incipit prima propositio planisperii. Quoslibet duos circulos equidistantes recto in spera corporea — recto per polum zodiaci transire necesse est vel habet. Expliciunt propositiones. [two additional chapters] Si a termino unius diametri circuli recti ducatur linea per centrum circuli — ad ed semidiametrum circuli recti. Radicem planisperii sic colligere possumus. Constat planisperium nichil aliud esse quam planitiem equinoctialis — in plano datum punctum in spera potentialiter ostendit.’

Content

Ptolemy’s text, together with additional material by Maslama al-Majrīṭī (d. 1006).

Origin

Translated from Arabic by Hermann of Carinthia in Toulouse in 1143 (1144 is given in MS Milan, BA, A. 183 inf.) and dedicated to Thierry of Chartres (although ed. Basel 1536 ascribes the translation to Rudolph of Bruges, Hermann’s pupil). Maslama al-Majrīṭī added a number of notes and an extra chapter to Ptolemy’s text, and it is Maslama’s version that was used by the Latin translator. The MSS can be divided into three classes, each by a different author (see Kunitzsch/Lorch, 8-10 and 34-35). Class I is Hermann’s translation, which includes Maslama’s notes 1-3, 6-7, 9 and 11 within the text. Class II is a reelaboration which includes Maslama’s notes 1-3 and 5-11, either in the margin or in the text, and Maslama’s extra chapter in a different translation. Class III is another reelaboration which includes Maslama’s notes 1-11 in the margin, Maslama’s extra chapter and Maslama’s astrolabe chapters in yet a different translation, whose author also translated anew portions of Ptolemy’s text. In most MSS of Class I and in the two MSS of Class III, the text is followed by a summary of Ptolemy’s 16 propositions under the title Propositiones planisperii.

Note

A couple of short Latin fragments translated from Arabic appear in the oldest Latin corpus on the astrolabe put together in Catalonia c. 1000 (see P. Kunitzsch, ‘Fragments of Ptolemy’s Planisphaerium in an Early Latin Translation’, Centaurus 36 (1993), 97-101 (reprinted in P. Kunitzsch, Stars and Numbers. Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds, Aldershot, 2004, VIII)).

Bibl.

A. d’Avezac, ‘Le planisphère de Claude Ptolémée’, Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 7 (1863), 333-337; C. H. Haskins, Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science, Cambridge, 1927 (2nd ed.), 47; F. J. Carmody, Arabic Astronomical and Astrological Sciences in Latin Translation. A Critical Bibliography, Berkeley-Los Angeles, 1956, 18 (no. 9); R. B. Thomson, Jordanus de Nemore and the Mathematics of Astrolabes: De plana spera, Toronto, 1978, 48 n. 23; C. Burnett, ‘Arabic into Latin in Twelfth Century Spain: The Works of Hermann of Carinthia’, Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 13 (1978), 100-134: 108-112; P. Kunitzsch, R. Lorch, Maslama’s Notes on Ptolemy’s Planisphaerium and Related Texts, Munich, 1994; P. Kunitzsch, ‘The Role of al-Andalus in the Transmission of Ptolemy’s Planisphaerium and Almagest’, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaft 10 (1995-96), 147-155 (reprinted in P. Kunitzsch, Stars and Numbers. Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds, Aldershot, 2004, VII).

Ed.

Critical edition by J. L. Heiberg, Claudii Ptolemaei opera quae exstant omnia, II: Opera astronomica minora, Leipzig, 1907, clxxx-clxxxvi (translator’s preface) and 227-259 (text, from six manuscripts: Dresden, SLUB, Db. 86; Oxford, BL, Auct. F.5.28; Paris, BnF, lat. 7214; Paris, BnF, lat. 7399; Vatican, BAV, Reg. lat. 1285; Vatican, BAV, Vat. lat. 3096), and by R. Sinisgalli, S. Vastola, Il planisfero di Tolomeo, Firenze, 1992 (in three columns from the three early printed editions, with an Italian translation). Hermann’s preface is edited and translated by Burnett, 109-112. German translation of Heiberg’s edition in J. Drecker, ‘Das Planisphaerium des Claudius Ptolemaeus’, Isis 9 (1927), 255-278. Maslama’s additions are edited by Kunitzsch/Lorch, 12-33 (Arabic text, with English translation), 36-54 (Latin notes), 54-63 (Latin extra chapter) and 65-71 (Latin astrolabe chapters). Kunitzsch/Lorch have also edited additions found in the two MSS of Class III (Appendix I, 99-104) and the Propositiones planisperii (Appendix II, 106-114). Maslama’s additions in Arabic had previously been edited by J. Vernet, M. A. Catalá, ‘Las obras matematicas de Maslama de Madrid’, Al-Andalus 30 (1965), 15-45: 22-26 (extra chapter) and 26-28 (astrolabe chapters), with a Spanish translation pp. 28-45.

EDS

MSS

Latin commentaries