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Ptolemaeus

Arabus et Latinus

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Work C.1.2

Geber
Liber super Almagesti

Text ‘(Madrid, BN, 10006) (1v-2v) [preface] Prologus libri Geber super Almagesti. Verba Geber filii Afflay Hyspalensis. Scientia species habet quarum melior post scientiam fidei — cuius socius non est. Et hic incipio premittere illa quorum premissio necessaria est. (2v-13r) [book i] Tractatus primus de propositionibus vel theorematibus huius libri. Et incipiamus exponere intentiones nominum usitatorum in eo — per illam quantitatem et illud est cuius voluimus declarationem. Explicit tractatus primus. (13r-29v) [book ii] Initium tractatus secundus (?) de ordinibus specierum huius scientie. Inquit Ptholomeus primum a quo nos oportet incipere in hoc libro est consideratio in summa dispositionis totius terre apud totum celum — et sinus arcus eius est notus, ergo ipse est notus, et illud est quod voluimus <declarare>. Et finitus tractatus secundus huius libri. (29v-36r) [book iii] Tertius huius libri in motu Solis medio (?). Et postquam declaratum est illud cuius demontratio precessit de istis scientiis particularibus — dies equales ad dies diversos et illud est quod voluimus declarare. Explicit tractatus tertius huius libri. (36r-52r) [book iv] Initium tractati quarti in Luna. Et postquam declaratum est ei totum quod premissum est de esse Solis, possibile est ei inquirere de esse Lune — dyametri orbis revolutionis et illud est cuius voluimus declarationem. Finis tractati quarti huius libri. (52r-77r) [book v] Inicium tractatus quinti in acceptione instrumenti quo scitur diversitas aspectus Lune. Et propterea quod non est quantitas sphere terre apud spheram orbis Lune — ergo longitudo puncti l ab illo puncto est nota, et illud est cuius voluimus declarationem. Expletus tractatus quintus huius libri. (77r-100r) [book vi] Tractatus sextus de stellis fixis. Quod stelle fixe sunt comitantes (!) proprietates suorum locorum cum quantitate spatii unius semper inter se ad invicem. Inquit Ptholomeus: Et postquam narravimus in eis que precedunt hunc sermonem illud quod accidit in sphera recta — occultationis erit manifesta cum declarabitur qualiter inveniantur qualitates eorum in fine libri in stellis currentibus secundum rectitudinem. Finitus est tractatus sextus. (100r-125v) [book vii] Tractatus septimus in stellis quinque currentibus. Et quia ostensum fuit ei totum cuius precessit declaratio de esse Solis et Lune et stellarum fixarum — et Martis super 16 partes 40 minuta Cancri. Completus est tractatus septimus huius libri. (125v-135v) [book viii] Tractatus octavus in statione stellarum V et retrogradatione earum. Propterea quod vir rememoratus est inventionis stationis stellarum secundum quod non sit ei nisi diversitas — super punctum l positum singulariter. Completa est declaratio eius. Completus est tractatus octavus huius libri. (135v-150r) [book ix] Tractatus nonus in latitudine planetarum. Et propterea quod remanserunt de scientia stellarum quinque hesitantium due res — sunt digniores ut evanescant et destruantur. Completa est eius declaratio. Finitur. Hunc librum transtulit in Toleto magister G<erardus> Cremon<ensis> de Arabico in Latinum.’

Content Nine books, covering all 13 books of the Almagest, as follows: I. Trigonometry; II. Spherical astronomy [=Almagest, I-II]; III. Sun [=Almagest, III]; IV. Moon [=Almagest, IV-V.10]; V. Instruments, parallaxes, distances and eclipses [=Almagest, V.11-VI]; VI. Fixed stars [=Almagest, VII-VIII]; VII. Planetary spheres [=Almagest, IX-XI]; VIII. Station and retrogradation [=Almagest, XII]; IX. Planetary latitudes [=Almagest, XIII].

Origin Jābir ibn Aflāḥ, Iṣlāḥ al-Majisṭī (‘Correction of the Almagest’), translated from Arabic by Gerard of Cremona.

Note Some MSS (Dresden, SLUB, Db. 87; Vatican, BAV, Vat. lat. 2059; Vienna, ÖNB, 5392; Vienna, ÖNB, 10905) have a short appendix, which is essentially a commentary on I.13-14: ‘Nota in figura tredecima libri primi Geber quod arcus ag subtensus recto potest esse quarta circuli In eadem figura potest contingere quod uterque duorum arcuum ag ab sit maior quarta circuli et quod uterque sit minor secundum Geber’. This appendix is discussed and edited in Lorch, ‘The Manuscripts of Jābir…’, 13-20 (15-17 for the edition), who notes that it also appears, in a longer form, within the text ‘Hec probationes sunt necessarie in theoremate undecimo partis secunde libri Theodosii de speris…’ in Paris, BnF, lat. 7377B (see this MS under Note); Madrid, BN, 10010, s. XIV, f. 51v-52v; and Vatican, BAV, Reg. lat. 1268, s. XIV, f. 207v-211r. In Vienna, ÖNB, 5392 and Vienna, ÖNB, 10905, the appendix contains an additional chapter on VII.14 (‘Nota in figura decima quarta septimi libri Geber quod centrum orbis signorum potest esse infra triangulum ad dyametrum circuli abg quod proponebatur’) and additional notes on various chapters (‘Annotationes in Gebrum. Textus fo: 1. Et de eis. Prima difficultas propter narrationem prachticae et theorice orbe signorum aliud est solus meridiem ab eo’), on which see Lorch, ‘The Manuscripts of Jābir…’, 14.

Bibl. F. J. Carmody, Arabic Astronomical and Astrological Sciences in Latin Translation. A Critical Bibliography, Berkeley-Los Angeles, 1956, 163-164 (no. 1: ‘Elementa astronomica’); R. Lorch, ‘The Astronomy of Jābir b. Aflāḥ’, Centaurus 19 (1975), 85-107 (reprinted in R. Lorch, Arabic Mathematical Science. Instruments, Texts, Transmission, Farnham-Burlington, 1995, VI); R. Lorch, ‘The Astronomical Instruments of Jābir ibn Aflah and the Torquetum’, Centaurus 20 (1976), 11-34 (reprinted in R. Lorch, Arabic Mathematical Science. Instruments, Texts, Transmission, Farnham-Burlington, 1995, XVI); H. Hugonnard Roche, ‘La théorie astronomique selon Jabir ibn Aflah’, History of Oriental Astronomy (IAU Colloquium 91), Cambridge, 1987, 207-208; N. M. Swerdlow, ‘Jābir ibn Aflaḥ’s Interesting Method for Finding the Eccentricities and Direction of the Apsidal Line of a Superior Planet’, in From Deferent to Equant: A Volume of Studies in the History of Science in the Ancient and Medieval Near East in Honor of E.S. Kennedy, eds D. A. King, G. Saliba, New York, 1987, 501-512; R. Lorch, ‘The Manuscripts of Jābir ibn Aflaḥ’s Treatise’, in R. Lorch, Arabic Mathematical Sciences. Instruments, Texts, Transmission, Farnham-Burlington, 1995, VII; R. Lorch, ‘Jābir ibn Aflaḥ and the Establishment of Trigonometry in the West’, in R. Lorch, Arabic Mathematical Sciences. Instruments, Texts, Transmission, Farnham-Burlington, 1995, VIII; J. Samsό, ‘Ibn al-Haytham and Jābir b. Aflaḥ´s Criticism of Ptolemy’s Determi­nation of the Parameters of Mercury’, Suhayl 2 (2001), 199-225 (reprinted in J. Samsό, Astrometeorologίa y astrologίa medievales, Barcelona, 2008, II, VII); J. Bellver, ‘Jābir b. Aflaḥ on the Four-Eclipse Method for Finding the Lunar Period in Anomaly’, Suhayl 6 (2006), 159-248; J. Bellver, Críticas a Ptolomeo en el s. XII: El caso del Iṣlāḥ al-Maŷisṭī de Ŷābir b. Aflaḥ, PhD dissertation, Universitat de Barcelona, 2007; J. Bellver, ‘Jābir b. Aflaḥ en torno a la inclinación de los eclipses en el horizonte’, Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences 57 (2007), 2-25; J. Bellver, ‘Jābir b. Aflaḥ on Lunar Eclipses’, Suhayl 8 (2008), 47-91; J. Bellver, ‘On Jābir b. Aflāḥ’s Criticism of Ptolemy’s Almagest’, in A shared Legacy. Islamic Science East and West. Homage to Professor J. M. Millàs Villacrosa, eds E. Calvo Labarta et al., Barcelona, 2008, 181-189; J. Bellver, ‘Jābir b. Aflaḥ on the Lunar Eccentricity and Prosneusis at Syzygies’, Zeitschrift für Geschischte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 18 (2008-2009), 213-239; J. Bellver, ‘El lugar del Iṣlāḥ al-Maŷisṭī de Ŷābir b. Aflaḥ en la llamada «Rebelión andalusí contra la astronomía ptolemaica»’, Al-Qanṭara 30 (2009), 83-136; J. Bellver, ‘Jābir b. Aflaḥ on the Limits of Solar and Lunar Eclipses’, SCIAMVS 12 (2011), 3-27; J. Bellver, ‘Ŷābir b. Aflaḥ en la leyenda de Sevilla’, Archivo Hispalense 95 (2012), 41-53; H. Zepeda, The Medieval Latin Transmission of the Menelaus Theorem, PhD Dissertation, University of Oklahoma at Norman, 2013, 105-128; M. J. Parra, ‘A Previously Unnoticed Appendix in the Iṣlāh al-Majisṭī by Jābir ibn Aflaḥ’, Suhayl 15 (2016-2017), 113-128.

Ed. None. The Arabic text has been partly edited by Bellver, Críticas...

EDS

Nürnberg, Johannes Petreius, 1534, sig. 1-146

MSS

Cambridge, UL, Mm 2.18 (2313), s. XIV, f. 1ra-49vb

Cesena, BCM, Plut. S.XXVII.2, s. XIII, f. 1ra-134raImages

Cracow, BJ, 569, s. XIV, f. 63v-115r

Cracow, BJ, 1921, s. XIV, f. 5r-122v

Cracow, BJ, 1964, s. XV, f. 2r-170r

Darmstadt, HLHB, 1987, s. XV, f. 39r-42r

Dresden, SLSUB, Db. 87, s. XIII-XIV, f. 162r-268r

Erfurt, UFB, Amplon. F. 382, s. XV, f. 3r-112r

Florence, BML, San Marco 215, s. XIV-XV, f. 1r-124r

Florence, BNC, Conv. Soppr. A.I.1475, s. XIII-XIV, f. 1ra-70va

Jena, TULB, El. f. 67, s. XIV, f. 93r-139r

London, BL, Harley 625, s. XIV, f. 8r-84v

London, RCP, 383, s. XIII, f. 162ra-178vb

Lyon, BM, 328, s. XIV, f. 78v-79r

Madrid, BN, 10006 (olim Toledo 98-16), s. XIII, f. 1r-150r

Madrid, BRAH, Cortes 2787, s. XVI, f. 220r-236v

Milan, BA, D. 114 inf., s. XV-XVI, f. 59r-69v

Milan, BA, G. 70 sup., s. XIV, f. 65ra-121ra

Nürnberg, SB, Cent. III 25, s. XV, f. 96r-130v

Oxford, BL, Ashmole 357, s. XIV-XV, f. 97r-178v

Oxford, CCC, 233, s. XIV, f. 32r-64r

Palermo, CSF, 4, s. XV, f. 7v-10r

Paris, BA, 1035, s. XIV, f. 1ra-79va

Paris, BnF, lat. 7267, s. XIII-XIV, f. 24rb-26rb

Paris, BnF, lat. 7292, s. XV, f. 49r-51r

Paris, BnF, lat. 16198, s. XIV, f. 74r-122v

Philadelphia, UP-KC, Ms. Codex 826 (olim Lat. 3), s. XIII-XIV, f. 1r-63v

Seitenstetten, SB, 53, s. XV, f. 1r-110v

Vatican, BAV, Ottob. lat. 2234, s. XIV, f. (2ra-42ra)

Vatican, BAV, Vat. lat. 2059, s. XIV, f. 1r-193v

Vatican, BAV, Vat. lat. 3096, s. XIV, f. 14v-140r

Venice, BNM, lat. VIII.14 (3068), s. XIV, f. 1ra-47ra

Vienna, ÖNB, 5392, s. XVI, f. 1r-225v

Vienna, ÖNB, 10905, s. XVI, f. 1r-146v

Latin commentaries